Inactive NF-κB is located in the cytosol in a complex with the inhibitory protein I-κBα. A variety of extracellular stress-related signals, including inflammatory cytokines, free radicals, uv irradiation, and bacterial or viral antigens can initiate phosphorylation and activation of I-κB kinase (IKK). Activated IKK phosphorylates I-κBα, which subsequently dissociates from NF-κB. Phosphorylated I-κBα is ubiquitated and degraded by the proteosome. phosphorylated NF-κB is translocated into the nucleus where it acts as a transcriptional activator.
The NF-κB pathway plays an important role in regulating immune responses to infection, and deregulation of NF-κB has been linked to several diseases, including cancer, and autoimmune diseases.
TGR has developed several SureFire® assays to interogate this pathway:
- phospho-NF-κB p65
- total NF-κB p65
- total I-κBα